(صفات مفعولی)Participle Adjectives
در زبان انگلیسی، می توان به بسیاری از افعال پسوندهای ed و ing اضافه کرد و صفت ساخت. به طور مثال می توان از فعل to surprise، صفتهای surprised و surprising را ساخت. نکتهی مهم توانایی تشخیص این نوع صفات، درک تفاوت بین آنها و استفاده صحیح از این صفتها است.
صفاتی که به ed ختم می شوند، عموما برای توصیف و بیان احساسات به کار می روند. این صفات معمولا برای انسانها (یا حیوانات) به کار گرفته میشوند و برای اشیا استفاده نمیشوند.
I was so bored in that lesson; I almost fell asleep.
He was surprised to see Bob after all those years.
She was really tired and went to bed early.
صفاتی که به ing ختم میشوند، عموما عامل ایجاد احساسات را بیان میکنند. این صفات برای توصیف انسانها و اشیا به کار میروند.
Have you seen that film? It’s really frightening.
I could listen to her for hours. She’s so interesting.
I can’t sleep! That noise is really annoying!
در ادامه فهرستی از صفتهای رایج که به ed و ing ختم میشوند آورده شده:
annoyed – annoying
bored – boring
confused – confusing
disappointed – disappointing
excited – exciting
frightened – frightening
interested – interesting
surprised – surprising
tired – tiring
خودآزمایی گرامر صفات مفعولی
جملات زیر را با صفت مناسب کامل کنید.
۱) I am so ____ (relaxed / relaxing) that I don’t want to move.
۲) I find horror films really ____ (frightened / frightening) and not at all fun to watch.
۳) Sometimes I get really ____ (frustrated / frustrating) when I can’t express myself well in English.
۴) We were stopped by a man with a knife who took our money. It was ____ (terrified / terrifying).
۵) The program was really ____ (interested / interesting).
۶) She was ____ (overwhelmed / over whelming) when everyone cheered and we gave her presents.
۷) If I feel stressed, I find taking a bath is often ____ (relaxed / relaxing).
۸) I’m really ____ (tired / tiring). I think I’ll go to bed.
۹) He’s very ____ (interested / interesting) in history.
۱۰) The trip was ____ (overwhelmed / overwhelming), with so many things to do and it was all so new.
۱۱) She is never ____ (satisfied / satisfying) with her work.
۱۲) Cleaning is so ____ (tired / tiring)! I think I’ll have a rest.
۱۳) She thought the ride on the roller-coaster was ____ (thrilled / thrilling).
۱۴) I was really ____ (surprised / surprising) when I saw you. I had thought you were on holiday.
۱۵) My grandmother was ____ (shocked / shocking) by the man’s bad language.
۱۶) My niece is ____ (terrified / terrifying) of dogs.
۱۷) Thank you so much for the prize! I’m ____ (thrilled / thrilling).
۱۸) My job is very ____ (satisfied / satisfying). I love helping people.
۱۹) The news was so ____ (shocked / shocking) that she burst into tears.
۲۰) My exam results were great! It’s really ____ (surprised / surprising) but good, of course.